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INTRODUCTORY ESSAY.                               117
of Cambay to the Ganges.   3. The Arawali mountains, ex-
tending from Hansi and Delhi to Gujerat.
1.  The Peninsular chain is the most important of these;
it forms a continuous watershed, throughout its length of
upwards of nine hundred miles, scarcely deviating from a
straight line, which is parallel and dose to the west coast of
the Peninsula, and perpendicular to the direction of the mon-
soons.   This chain divides the Peninsula unequally into two
portions, marked by different climates,a narrow western one,
including the provinces of Malabar and the Concan j and a
broad eastern one, traversed consequently by all the great
rivers, and including the Carnatic, Mysore, and the Dekhau.
Khandesh lies to the north of the chain, and includes that,
portion which sinks into the Tapti valley, together with the
southern (opposite) dope of the Satpura branch af the Via-
dhia to the north of that river.
2.  The Viudhia chain, from the little that is known of its
structure, appears to consist of two parallel ranges, connected
towards their centres, where the table-land of Umarkantak is
said tq attain an elevation of 4500 feet \ elsewhere they are
separated by the great rivers Son and Ncrbada, which rise to-<
geiher and flow in opposite directions.   The more southern of
these ranges is probably always the higher of the two, but it
appears seldom to exceed 3000 feet,    The Vindliia mountains
separate the Ganges and its tributaries from those rivers (the
Mahanuddy, etc.) which flow south-cast to the Bay of Bengal,
as also from the Tapti and Ncrbada, which flow west to the
Arabian Sea.   To the south of the range are the provinces of
Khandesh, Berar, and Orissa; and to the cast and north is the
Gangctic valley, extending to the base of the Himalaya, and
forming one great botanical province.
3.  The Arawali chain is the least elevated of the three: it
divides the tributaries of the Indus from those of the Ganges,
and may hence be regarded as a continuation of the Cis-Satlej
chain of the Himalaya, which terminates, to all appearance, in
the plains near Nahan in Sirmiir.   In like manner, the Pcnin-